Namibia is known for its contrasting landscapes. The desolate Namib Desert is said to be the oldest in the world, with its high dunes and awe-inspiring sense of space. The central plateau, with its thorn bush savannah and rugged mountains, rising abruptly from the plains, gives way to the majestic Fish River Canyon in the south.
In the north of the country, landscapes range from dense bush and the open plains of the great Etosha Pan, to woodland savannah and lush vegetation. Dinosaur footprints preserved in sandstone, prehistoric rock art and the ancient fossil plant, Welwitschia mirabilis, all bare witness to the timelessness of this country.
Namibia is divided into 3 distinct topographical regions:
Namib Desert: Long narrow coastal desert 50km-140km, extending along the entire coastline and interspersed with dune belts, dry riverbeds and deeply eroded canyons.
Central Plateau: Runs from North to South with an average altitude between 1000-2000 m. This area has breathtaking landscapes, rugged mountains, rocky outcrops, sand filled valleys and endless plains.
Kalahari Desert: Long vegetated dunes of red sand extend through this area. It spans dense bush covered plains north east of the Etosha Pan including the high rainfall areas of Kavango and Caprivi, tropical forest, perennial rivers and woodland savannah. Namibia is the first country in the world to include protection of the environment and sustainable utilisation of wildlife in its constitution.
Namibia has a well-established road infrastructure. The majority of towns and communities can be reached by a network of quality gravel trunk, main and district road networks.
The country is linked by road to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. The Trans-Kalahari and the Trans-Caprivi Highways provide a fast and comfortable road link between Namibia's port of Walvis Bay on the Atlantic coast, and landlocked neighbouring countries.
In particular, the Trans-Kalahari Highway links Walvis Bay to Botswana and the Gauteng province, the industrial heart of South Africa. The Trans-Caprivi Highway links Namibia's landlocked neighbouring countries of Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the port of Walvis Bay.
The Highways provide a regional transport corridor, intended to reduce the time-span for movement of imports and exports from the neighbouring countries to the markets of Western Europe and the Americas.
Namibia has direct air links to major cities of sub-Saharan Africa, such as Cape Town, Johannesburg, Gaborone, Lusaka and Harare. International flights from Frankfurt and London land in and depart from Namibia regularly. The country's three international airports are Hosea Kutako International Airport, Walvis Bay Airport and Keetmanshoop airport. There are numerous smaller aerodromes as well as private landing strips throughout the country.